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12 Dec 2002














Cross Currents No 12 Dec 2002 

A digest of cross sectoral information management events, issues and ideas in organisations, libraries, archives and museums, with special emphasis on arts and the humanities.


CONVERGENCE Canada and Australia

CULTURE & HUMANITIES Australian UNESCO Memory of the World Register; Charging Models for Digital Cultural Heritage; Humanities & Technology; Valuing Cultural Heritage; Web X 

MUSIC & SOUND In America; In Australia; In Europe


VISUAL ARTS ArtSTOR; Artiste OAI Registry; Australian Contemporary Visual Arts and Crafts


LIBRARIES, INFORMATION SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DLIST; Digital Library Technology Trends; JISC CC-Interop; Reference Chat

MUSEUMS Cybermuseums; Museums and the Web Conference

USERS Reading behaviour and e-journals; Library Use Varies According to How Information Will be Used

STANDARDS New Open Source ILL System; XOBIS - the XML Organic Bibliographic Information Schema



The National Library of Canada and the National Archives of Canada will merge to form the Library and Archives of Canada. The new institution will seek to develop  partnerships with other communities and knowledge management professionals to create networks and synergies and to position itself as ‘a leading knowledge and information management organization-unique in the world’. For updates, see the currently separate websites at http;//www.nlc-bnc.ca and http://www.archives.ca


Meanwhile, in Australia, the Federal Government has initiated an efficiency audit of federally-funded Australian cultural institutions, including the National Library, National Archives, National Museum, ScreenSound and Australia Council. [Sydney Morning Herald 11.12.02]




Australian UNESCO Memory of the World Register

The Australian Memory of the World Committee is seeking nominations of nationally significant documentary heritage material for entry on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register, established to preserve and provide access to the world's most significant documentary heritage by identifying on International, Regional and National Registers, documentary material of world significance. Australian categories of interest for the list of Lost and Missing Australian Documentary Heritage of National Significance include architectural drawings, government, literature, music, science & technology and sport. [Source: Aus-Archivists]  Details of the International program are available at: http://www.unesco.org/webworld/mdm/en/index_mdm.html. Information about the Australian program is available at: http://members.ozemail.com.au/~aghowell/mow/amow_hmp.htm


Charging Models for Digital Cultural Heritage

The Higher Education Digital Service (HEDS) has published a report on the above topic on behalf of the Mellon Foundation. The study investigated some of the underlying assumptions being made in the move from previously analogue photographic services into the realm of digital capture and delivery. It shows how pricing structures are determined for delivering digital versions of rare or unique items in libraries, museums, archives and similar public institutions. It gives evidence of how these digital pricing structures compare to those used for the delivery of the same or similar resources in analogue form. It explores the thresholds that determine the point at which an organization charges for the sale of content and other rights to their digital holdings and the reasons given for such charges. It concludes by identifying the clear relationship between the gatekeeper function, the pricing policy and the assignment of revenue raised in the institutions accounting of whether a service is profitable or not. Future trends and further steps are also suggested. [Source DigLib]. Web http://heds.herts.ac.uk/mellon/charging_models.html .


Humanities and Technology

The American Association for History and Computing (AAHC) has called for book proposals as part of a new series on the humanities and technology, edited by David J. Staley, Jeffrey G. Barlow, and Dennis A. Trinkle. The goal of the series is to explore how emerging technologies will transform the presentation, communication and understanding of history and the humanities. [Source NINCH]. Further details . http://www.princeton.edu/~mccarty/humanist/> or <http://www.kcl.ac.uk/humanities/cch/humanist/>


Valuing Cultural Heritage

Edward Elgar Publishing has just published a new book called Valuing Cultural Heritage, which is about the application of non-market environmental valuation techniques to historic buildings, monuments and artefacts. The editors are Stale Nayrud and Richard Ready.


Web X: A Decade of the World Wide Web

The Association for Computers and the Humanities and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing have called for papers for the ACH/ALLC 2003 conference Web X: A Decade of the World Wide Web to be held May 29-June 2, 2003 at  the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. Key questions: How exactly are IT developments changing the ways in which humanities scholars work? What new and distinct methodologies is IT now bringing to the humanities? How do we expect methodologies -and the role of the humanities scholar - to change in the near future as a result of the impact of IT? How are IT-related developments in one discipline affecting or likely to affect those in others? [Source NINCH]. Web: http://www.english.uga.edu/webx/




In America


[American Memory Project]. The Library of Congress has added a digitally scanned collection of more than 62,500 pieces of historical sheet music registered for copyright 1820-1885 to its American Memory Project. It includes popular songs, operatic arias, piano music, sacred and secular choral music, solo instrumental music, method books and instructional materials, and music for band and orchestra. [Source: LII] Web: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mussmhtml/


[Music in Art: Music Iconography as a Source for Music History] The 9th Conference of the Research Center for Music Iconography, CUNY will be held in New York, 6-8 November 2003.  Proposals for papers on relevant topics are invited at http://web.gc.cuny.edu/rcmi [Source: IAML]


{RIPM]  The International Index to Nineteenth-Century Music Periodicals has expanded its chronological scope to 1950. RIPM has already publishing over 150 volumes and an electronic database containing over 410,000 annotated records dealing with 19th-century music journals. The records covering 1900-1950 will begin to appear regularly in RIPM Online and RIPM on CD-ROM in 2003. Initially the focus will be on 20th-century English language journals, although journals in other languages will also be treated. For a listing of new RIPM 20th-century titles selected for priority indexing click here http://www.nisc.com/RIPM_20th_Century.htm   For sales information contact sales@nisc.com. Web: http://www.nisc.com


In Australia


[ASRA} The Australia Sound Recordings Association held its 2002 Conference at ScreenSound in Canberra during September with presentations on Florence Austral, MusicAustralia, Dame Nellie Melba and other topics. Further details: http://home.vicnet.net.au/~sound/


[MusicAustralia]. The project’s pilot website is now available at http://www.musicaustralia.org. The project aims to develop a number of music information services and to provide integrated access to other services of interest. Initial links include the National Library of Australia's selection of online music indexes and databases, access to registration facilities for the International Standard Music Number Agency, Australian Libraries Gateway. register of selected international music projects, Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, PictureAustralia, Oral History Directory, AusLit, and funding opportunities available from the Australia Council Music Board. Future service links will include a directory of Australian musicians and music organisations, links to resources that provide contextual information links to major non Australian collections and resources self-archiving services educational and curriculum services.


In Europe


[European Musical Digital Content]. The Science Park Office of the University of Rome, with partners the Municipality of Rome, the MTV musical network, the Department of Art, Music and Performance at University of Bologna and the AMIC (Archives of Italian Contemporary Music) is preparing a proposal for an e-content program which aims to build a network of musical archives and stimulate the development and the use of European digital content. Expressions of interest will be sought in December 2002. [Source: IAML]


[MusicNetwork]. The European Commission has funded MUSICNETWORK, a new network in Interactive Music Multimedia ‘to assist the music industry to enter the marketplace by drawing on the assets and mutual interest of the different actors in using, technologies, tools, products, formats and models’. Proposed services include a large archive, best practice guidelines, tutorials, free workshops, new standards, discussion forums, promotion of product, market and technical information. Participation is open to industries, research centres, publishers, libraries, archives, music distributors, schools of music, and associations. Web:: http://www.interactivemusicnetwork.org




[AusStage]. The Australian Performing Arts Database project has launched its site at http://www:AusStage.edu.au. The database currently has over 11,000 records of current Australian events from January 2001 and past events drawn from the Australian and New Zealand Theatre Record and the program collections of the National Library of Australia and the Dennis Wolanski Library collection at the University of NSW. [Source: Museums Australia Performing Arts Special Interest Group newsletter].





The University of California San Diego has received US$850,000 from the Mellon Foundation to support several digital media initiatives, including the creation of a prototype Union Catalogue for Art Images in partnership with Harvard University and the Cleveland Museum of Art, involving, initially, the  gathering 500,000 metadata records describing art and other images created at these institutions. The grant will also support the digitisation of UCSD Libraries' slide collection, which will be added to the ArtSTOR collection.  [Source: NINCH]. Further details 



ARTISTE OAI Repository

ARTISTE is a European Commission project that has developed integrated content and metadata-based image retrieval across several major art galleries in Europe. Collaborating galleries include the Louvre in Paris, the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the Uffizi Gallery in Florence and the National Gallery in London. Further information: http://www.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk/artiste/.  [Source FOS[


Australian Contemporary Visual Arts and Craft

The Myer Report, hailed as the first comprehensive mapping and examination of the contemporary arts and crafts sector in Australia, is available from the Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts. Recommends include increased funding for practitioners, organisations, publications and events, changes in industry conditions and a national education campaign. Website:  http://www.dcita.gov.au/




Christine Soo, Timothy  Devinney, David  Midgley and others have written Knowledge Management: Philosophy, Processes, and Pitfalls in the California Management Review. Vol 44, no 4, Summer 2002: 129-150. The article, funded by grants from several Australian research agencies, discusses confusion arising from the promotion by IT companies of data or document management software as knowledge management systems. It emphasises essential concept as the process of learning, understanding and applying information using four subsystems: (1) a database subsystem; (2) an organizational language subsystem; (3) a networking subsystem, and 94) a transfer subsystem. It offers 8 KM lessons or caveats. [Source: Current Cites]


Thomas A Stewart’s latest article How to Think With Your Gut in Business    November 2002 (pp98-104) refers to a growing body of research that appears to show that intuition is inseparable from effective decision making and asserts ‘in complex or chaotic situations...intuition usually beats rational analysis’. [Source Current Cites.


Ingrid Mason from the Powerhouse Museum Research Library in Sydney presented a paper Knowledge management, valuation of intangibles, and the strategic development of cultural institutions: what does knowledge management mean to the cultural sector?  How can we 'manage' knowledge? at the Museums Documentation Association Conference in the UK, 4-6 September 2002. Intangible assets are slippery in nature; they are hard to pinpoint and even harder to incorporate into the more traditionally tangible nature of strategic plans and performance measures. Nonetheless, cultural institutions are compelled to find ways to identify and illuminate their value, cultivate and exploit them. [Source; AMO]. Web address for paper: http://www.phm.gov.au/library/papers/ingrid/


In New Zealand, a steering group has completed Collaborating at Speed: Innovation Infrastructure for a Knowledge Economy, a report on the establishment of an Internet Advanced Research Network in New Zealand. The report recommends: a network that is open to private sector stakeholders as well as the research and education communities; connectivity to all major centres within 12 months, with expansion to regional centres to follow; funding from government as well as private sector groups and a program to stimulate application development in areas like Creative, Biotechnology, Tele-health, AgriTech, ICT, Education and e-Learning. A consortium is proposed as an immediate step to develop an appropriate governance and management structure for the establishment of the network. [Source: The Update]. Web: http://www.ngi.org.nz .




DLIST: Digital Library of Information Science and Technology 

The School of Information Resources and Library Science and the Arizona Health Sciences Library at the University of Arizona have launched DLIST, a Digital Library of Information Science and Technology repository of electronic resources on the domains of Library and Information Science (LIS) and Information Technology (IT) incorporating published papers, data sets, instructional and help materials, pathfinders, reports and bibliographies It runs on the Open Archives Initiative (OAI)-compliant Eprints v.2 software developed at the University of Southampton. The University invites authors in relevant areas to register and deposit their papers. Web:http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu


Digital Library Technology Trends

Sun Microsystems has published a 38-page white paper Digital Library Technology Trends, examining new IT architectures, content management issues, and leading edge academic projects worldwide. A copy is available at http://www.sun.com/. [Source: Diglib]


JISC CC-Interop

Current KISC projects include CC-interop, involving the M25 Systems Team, CDLR, MIMAS and RIDING, building on expertise acquired in relation to physical and virtual union catalogues. The project aims to test the feasibility of inter-linking between physical and virtual union catalogues and further tests many of the findings highlighted in the UKNUC Feasibility Study Report. CC-interop will also investigate collection level description schemas in relation to both clumps and COPAC as well as their use in the selection of targets in clumps. This will entail the development of guidelines for dealing with variations in cataloguing indexing practices in order to facilitate interoperability between the clumps and COPAC. {Source FOS]. Web: http://ccinterop.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/


Reference Chat

A group of experts in a Library Journal roundtable discuss live digital reference services (chat reference, virtual reference, online reference, and synchronous reference) and conclude that (1) librarians should think of live, digital reference as just one in a suite of tools they offer the public; and (2) libraries must offer this service and must do it well -- or someone else, such as a profit-focused corporation, most assuredly will. (Library Journal Review News 1 Oct 2002) Web: http://libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com/





NINCH has published Stanley N. Katz’s address What Do We Want from the Cybermuseum? dealing with the development of digital technology in museums, particularly as regards the need to rethink institutional infrastructure, coordinating and integrating digital production, new staffing models, the potential of broadband for furthering museum education and outreach, the role of technology in connecting museums with the communities of the future, the relationship between digital presence and the number of visitors to the physical museum; and the role of NINCH vis-a-vis its museum members. [Source NINCH]. Web. http://www.ninch.org/forum/museums.html


Museums and the Web Conference

Archives & Museum Informatics’ next Museums and the Web conference, chaired by Jennifer Trant and David Bearman, will be held on March 19-22, 2003: in Charlotte, North Carolina USA. [Source NINCH]. Further details and papers from all previous conferences: http://www.archimuse.com/mw2003/




Reading behaviour and electronic journals

Carol Tenopir and Donald W. King in Reading Behaviour and Electronic Journals (Learned Publishing October 2002) present the findings of several surveys about the journal reading habits of scholars. According to Current Cites: ‘One interesting finding is that the natural and social science faculty at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville had a limited awareness of e-print services. For example, 8 of 99 subjects (8%) knew of arXiv.org, probably the highest profile e-print service in existence. By contrast, 29% of subjects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory knew of the service. While e-print services may loom large in the minds of reformers, it appears that there is a significant amount of work to do in educating scholars about the existence and potentials of such services. Another interesting finding is that, of UT subjects, only 8% read articles from  e-journals that the library subscribed to, 4% from free e-journals, 3% from e-journals that subjects subscribed to, and 2% from  authors' Web pages. On the other hand, 41% read articles from personal print subscriptions and 24% from library print subscriptions’. [Source: Current Cites]


Library use varies according to how information will be used.

Behaviours and patterns of information users strongly relate to how they plan to apply the information, according to preliminary conclusions of a Digital Library Federation-commissioned study. According to Current Cites: ‘The survey of more than 3,000 students and faculty at about 400 colleges and universities in the United States found that 64% said their own library's Web site met their current information needs for research. But for coursework, students said they used more information from their schools' physical and virtual libraries than from  other sources, with 67% using the Web site. For instructional purposes, teachers reported using only slightly more information from their institution's physical and virtual libraries than from other sources -- a faculty member might use one method when seeking information for a class and another method when searching for research material. And 84% of respondents said that overall the Internet has changed the way they use their institution's library. For research, they used considerably more information from the library -- physical and virtual -- than from other sources. This is particularly true for researchers in the biological and social sciences, the arts and humanities, and engineering, but less so for those working in law, math and the physical sciences. (Educause Review Sep/Oct 2002). Web http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm02511.pdf




New Open Source ILL System

The University of Winnipeg Library has announced the OpenILL Project (http://cybrary.uwinnipeg.ca/projects/openill), which will create an open source ISO ILL/IPIG compliant InterLibrary Loan system. OpenILL will be deployable locally, or via a remotely hosted option and will provide a highly configurable environment. The system will interoperate closely with another open source library product, GODOT (http://godot.lib.sfu.ca/), which provides a robust resource discovery, linking and requesting system. GODOT is an open source alternative to linking products like SFX and has been developed by COPPUL, the Council of Prairie and Pacific University Libraries (http://library.usask.ca/coppul/). The 1st release is planned for December 2002. [Source: FOS]


XOBIS: the XML Organic Bibliographic Information Schema

The Medlane Project at Lane Medical Library, Stanford University, has completed an alpha version of XOBIS, which attempts to restructure broadly interpreted bibliographic information and authority records in an exploration of the feasibility of replacing MARC. The schema and two preliminary sample records are available at http://xobis.stanford.edu


According to the Press release, unlike the initial XMLMARC DTD, released with version 1.0 of the XMLMARC software, and unlike the new MARC XML schema from the Library of Congress, XOBIS is not a literal translation of MARC into XML.  Instead, XOBIS conceives of library data in a way that attempts to simplify its structure without loosing critical content.  Because this is an alpha version, some of MARC's more exotic fields have not been fully considered. XOBIS builds on crisp reusable data elements that are explicitly related to each other. This differs from MARC XML which treats many relationships as record descriptions.  For instance, in MARC XML, the publisher of a work is a part of the record's description while, in XOBIS, it is represented by a Work to Organization relationship (that may or may not be controlled by an authorized Organization record). Future plans include writing an XMLMARC map that will convert MARC records into the XOBIS format.  [Source: fos-forum]

This issue of Cross Currents compiled by Paul Bentley


The Wolanski Foundation would be grateful for feedback on the scope, format and content of this bulletin..


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