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Finding the Edge: the ALIA Information Online Conference 2015

by Paul Bentley


Article originally published in Online Currents June 2015 and reprinted with kind permission of Thomson Reuters.



The slogan for the 17th ALIA Information Online conference was At the Edge. As delegates travelled up the escalator towards the opening plenary session, they left behind a world in which the use of technology has produced tensions. Chelsea Manning, Julian Assange and Edward Snowden were holed up because they believed the world had become too much like Nineteen Eighty Four. Social media that four years ago had been used to inspire hope in Tunisia and Egypt were now being used by Islamic State as a black art to terrorise the rest of the world. How close to the edge would the conference take those assembled in the comfort of the Sydney Hilton Hotel? And what sort of a difference would it make to what they do tomorrow? [1]


The big opportunity

Siva Vaidhyanathan urged libraries to occupy land that Google is now leaving. Drawing on his book
The Googlization of Everything and Why We Should Worry, the Professor of Media Studies at the University of Virginia said Google had begun to solve what used to be regarded as a library problem. Their search engine invention had sucked all the energy out of the room and forced libraries to become defensive. But Google is no longer the same company. It now wants to be the operating system of our lives, to be responsive to the flows of data controlling the operation of fridges and cars. Book scanning and similar initiatives have been “parked on the side.”  

To help libraries seize the day, he proposed a Human Knowledge Project, modelled on the Human Genome Project, as a networked digital collection of collections.[2] The dream of universal access to comprehensive knowledge, he said, is not new. But is what we have already done the best we can do? We’ve long had the technology. What we have lacked is the political will. The Human Knowledge Project is a concept for investing in technology, people and buildings to create national networks with local and global impacts. Citing Diderot’s Encyclopédie as one of the antecedents of such a project, he said the Digital Public Library of America, the Internet Archive and Trove are potential partners among a wider range of stakeholders.   

Remaking library spaces and services

Erik Boekesteijn’s message was that extreme library makeovers and mind shifts are needed in order to survive. As director of Doklab (, a consulting service in concept and product development located at the Delft Public Library, he keeps his finger on the pulse through the Shanachie Tour (, highlighting the work of libraries around the world, and a weekly online talk show, This Week in Libraries. ( His slide show offered a smorgasbord of mind shifts from his travels and shows. These include digital signage, transit screens, learning labs, makerspaces, rooms for hire, use of social media, smart use of library cards, managing user-generated content, e-publications and slippery dips from one floor to another. Initiatives worthy of attention include the Singapore Memory Portal ( and the digital library on the walls of a Bucharest subway station.[3] Libraries, he said, need to become the starting point for a conversation. In the end, it is how libraries make people feel that is important.

Liz McGettigan gave a lesson in attitude. The Director of Digital at SOLUS UK called for radical transformation to deliver customer-centric services in hi-tech libraries. Libraries have responded well to emerging challenges, she said, but they still feel threatened. Drawing on her experience as Head of Libraries and Information Service for the City of Edinburgh, she reeled off pragmatic ways to manage and sell services. Librarians need to be opportunistic, take the lead, demonstrate energy, know their strengths and be prepared to make mistakes. They need to make changes within existing budgets and do something different every year. And, in a Scottish burr worthy of Mel Gibson’s call to his kilted highlanders in the film Braveheart, she urged those assembled on the battlefield to “choose glory”.

Planning tools and techniques were explored by a number of speakers. Sue Hutley (Queensland University of Technology) homed in on the value of trends as a starting point.  After citing a number of sources worthy of study, she focused on the 2014 Horizon library trends report and the blips on its radar screen -- changing research environments, mobile content and delivery, developments in standards and infrastructure, electronic publishing, the Internet of Things, the Semantic Web and linked data.[4] Two presentations highlighted the value of design thinking (Rebecca Goldsworthy and Kate Masters from the University of Sydney Library and Justine Hyde, Ben Conyers and Bridie Flynn from the State Library of Victoria). Alison Pepper and Margie Janttl described the development of the University of Woollongong’s ‘value cube’ database, which has been used to learn more about student borrowing and online resource usage patterns. Jennifer Crosby and Kimberley Williams (University of Technology Sydney) championed the creation of a 'sticky campus' to encourage staff and students to become involved in the planning process.

Government and business libraries are often the most vulnerable in volatile times. Kim Sherwin (Arup) and Pia Waugh (Australian Department of Finance) offered their experience of going on the front foot. Two librarians were generous enough to expose the raw side. Laura Atkinson’s experience was leading restructuring of Victorian Government libraries, where 55 libraries were reduced to 19 services and 14 locations were reduced to 3. On the plus side, the changes have led to greater consistency in service delivery and more direct online access to resources. But her final comment - “Don’t trust anyone”- exposed the emotional side of the process. Cynthia Love was called upon to respond to funding pressures by making extensive changes to information services at the CSIRO. With full online service delivery by 2016 as the goal, this has involved consolidating collections, weeding duplicated and obsolete material, establishing a single document supply centre, adding data management responsibilities, and assigning librarians to strategic research projects. Being in step with the organisation is important. But sometimes there is no rational explanation for what you are asked to do.  

Public library developments of the kind highlighted by Erik Boekesteijn were picked up in local case studies. Tania Barry’s work at Hume Libraries in Victoria has involved the establishment of a makerspace, equipped with technologies for content creation, programming and 3D printing. Lisa Miller gave us a picture of the new media lab at City of Gold Coast Libraries’ Helensvale Branch, which has attracted new users and forged links with small businesses. Measuring the success of the venture, she said, has been difficult, but success of ventures like this, like the success of exposing children to books, is surely best measured years down the track.

Discovery, digital creation and digitisation

Mitchell Whitelaw, from the Centre for Creative and Cultural Research at the University of Canberra, reprised and updated his keynote address about generous digital interfaces at the 2013 ALIA Biennial conference. Further experiments are exposing new ways to enrich collections, locate items, and understand subjects. They are drawing attention to the value of serendipity, challenging notions of significance and posing questions about the allocation of budgets on solutions for searching and browsing. The work of the Internet Archives, for example, in adding 2.6 million tagged images with OCR text from scanned books was achieved at minimal cost by one person using a computer. An improved understanding of authors in the Bloodaxe archive of contemporary poetry at Newcastle University in the UK was engineered by using a marginalia machine and linking data to the British National Bibliography. Spotify’s Every Noise at Once, a map of music genres, makes it possible to drill down on recordings in specific genres and explore related genres in the music streaming service. The tranScriptorum project is developing solutions for indexing, searching and transcribing historical handwritten document images. As a takeaway article, he recommended Alexis Madrigal’s article How Netflix Reverse Engineered Hollywood, about the creation of a new genre generator.[5]

Sarah Kenderdine, Deputy Director of the National Institute for Experimental Arts and Director of the Laboratory for Innovation in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums University of NSW (iGLAM Lab), encouraged institutions to take on a role as “applied laboratories and nodes of experimentation for the cultural imaginary of our times” by using new media art practice to create immersive experiences, interactive cinema, augmented reality and embodied narratives -- creating experiences for which there has been no former demand. From her portfolio she offered some enticing examples, undertaken mainly in partnership with the museums and heritage sites: mARChive (Museum Victoria’s data browser for 100,000 objects in 360-degree 3D); Look up Bombay (a gigapixel dome work for the Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai); Pirates Scroll 360 and Pirates Scroll Navigator (two treatments of a scroll painting, Hong Kong Maritime Museum); Pure Land: Inside the Mogao Grottoes at Dunhuang and Pure Land Augmented Reality Edition (based on interactive facsimiles of the World Heritage site, Dunhuang, China); Kaladham (based on the World Heritage Site, Hampi, India) and ECloud WW1 (a world touring exhibition representing 70,000 objects in 3D from the Europeana website). Projects in the pipeline for major museums in Australia are devoted to a hospital operating theatre, Asia and Aboriginal culture. Her takeaway citation was an article in The Atlantic which posed the question: what is a thing?[6]

Three presentations about Trove, tucked away in the concurrent sessions, deserved greater prominence because of the important messages they conveyed.  

The first message was that Trove, despite its success, is done on the cheap. The National Library of Australia’s Marie-Louise Ayres compared the Australian discovery services with similar enterprises around the world – Europeana, DigitalNZ and the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) – to highlight progress and opportunities. Although they have similar purposes, they have completely different government mandates, governance frameworks and funding dimensions. Trove’s content base is much more diverse and complex than the others. Trove and DigitalNZ offer workmanlike search interfaces compared with the more arresting design features of Europeana and DPLA. All services have an open access agenda, but Trove is hindered in delivering this goal by complexities around licensing, metadata, and other matters. Trove is also hampered by the fact that it doesn’t have a clear Government mandate and major funding outside the National Library’s budget. It can only develop things incrementally and its capacity to assist prospective contributors is limited. Only time will tell whether the next five years will bring further convergence or further divergence and whether new players will change the aggregator environment in ways not yet imaginable.  

The second message was that Trove is great, but it isn’t perfect. Trove Manager, Tim Sherratt, challenged the notion that a ‘seamless’ world of information is possible. As we imagine the future of a service such as Trove, how do we balance the benefits of consistency, coordination and centralisation against the reality of a fragmented, unequal, and fundamentally broken world? Trove is an aggregator and a community, a collection of metadata and a platform for engagement. In exploring possibilities, we need to acknowledge its limitations. It is not perfect. It is not everything. It is not a machine. Although library services cannot compete with Google’s oracular power, they can strive to offer users a comparable level of simplicity. And, by exposing assumptions and imperfections, collection gaps and strengths, data visualisation techniques can reveal ways to educate the public, analyse data and repair what appears to be broken.

The third message was that Trove has paved the way for harvesting data from types of contributors who were once excluded. Julia Hickie and Mark Raadgever drilled down on the work of the harvesting of content from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Radio National (RN) website as a way of expanding Trove’s news coverage. This involved devising non-standard systems and protocols to capture 84 separate RN programs using Sitemaps, checking RN RSS feeds and converting metadata to Dublin Core, a workaround that, in partnership with the ABC, has produced an alternative to the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). It has been effort that has enabled the library to bring content in from a number of other data sources, such as the Australian Government Solicitor’s Legal Opinions website, the Australian Parliamentary Library’s Press Releases database and the AusStage events database. It will make it possible to extend collaborations to owners of content management system websites. The library is “taking its blinkers off and thinking beyond conventional data types and content partners.”

Maggie Patton shone a spotlight on digitisation programs at the State Library of New South Wales, which in 2012 was the beneficiary of a commitment of $48.6 million by the NSW Government for the initial five years of a ten year program. This has enabled infrastructure and systems renewal, involving the acquisition of Ex Libris products, Rosetta digital asset management system, and Axiell Group’s Adlib Archive among other systems. Over the past 2 years, 1.3 million pages or approximately 4,500 books from the extensive David Scott Mitchell printed book collection have been generated, over 2.6 million newspaper pages have been released through Trove, and over 180,000 pages from the Library’s extensive WWI diary collection have been digitised.  Other elements of the program include contributions to Flickr Commons, Wikipedia and Google Cultural Institute, the use of a transcription tool to assist volunteer transcribers, geo-referencing its cartographic collections, and open data initiatives. In other papers, Adrian Bowen explored the digitisation of the oral history collection at the State Library of Western Australia, where protocols have been adopted to deal with orphan works. Dianne Velasquez and Jennifer Campbell-Meier touched on the digitisation in information repositories and other forms of digital collections in the the university sector.  

Do libraries still need to invest in the web-scale discovery services such like Primo, Summon, EDS and WorldCat Discovery Services? This was a question tackled from library and vendor perspectives. Andrew Wells (University of New South Wales) drew upon local and American surveys that reveal changing user preferences for search engines, external content providers and library systems in universities. As the move from print to 24/7 online access replaces the model based on ownership of physical resources, the UNSW Library believes its investment on web-scale discovery systems is currently worth the expenditure. Bruce Heterick from JSTOR gave a vendor perspective. There is an assumption that libraries, content providers, and web-scale discover service providers have goals that are aligned. Most content providers are interested in getting content on their platform to as many users as possible, but need to recover their significant financial investment. Libraries, too, need to increase their own level of investment to manage the changing environment.

Specialised system developments were explored by Clare McKenzie, Emma McLean, Kate Byrne and Susan Lafferty from the University of NSW, where a new research output system, based on Symplectic’s Elements software, has involved a transfer of responsibilities to academic and research staff. Katrina McAlpine and Lisa McIntosh gave details of an eResearch framework at the University of Wollongong Library to define support services for the registration, storage, description and discoverability of research datasets. Cathy Jilovsky and Michael Robinson described CAVAL’s new D2D (Discovery to Delivery) service, which streamlines the delivery of requested resources with minimum mediation. A case study offered by Maureen Sullivan and Suzanne Bailey was devoted to Griffith University’s ePress library-based electronic publishing service. Cecile Paris talked about work at CSIRO on the development of systems for searching, capturing, and analysing digital content. Jane Angel gave a run-down on the delivery of electronic resources using a rebadged EBSCO Discovery Services at the Defence Science and Technology Organisation. Clare Thorpe described how the Identity Management Project at the State Library of Queensland was streamlining 19 client management systems to make it simpler for users to gain state-wide access collections and services, loans, online databases and newsletter subscriptions. And two speakers -- Trish Hepworth and Thomas Joyce – talked about fair use copyright reform and approaches for staying out of trouble.

Connecting with users

The use of social media is widespread. The State Library of NSW – in papers and workshops by Mylee Joseph, Kirsten Thorpe, and Ellen Forsyth – offered the benefit of their experience by talking about the risks involved, use of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library, Information and Resource Network protocols when engaging with Indigenous communities, and ways of measuring the effectiveness and impact of social media. Richard Gray and Amy Baker, from UNSW Australia, and Jill Benn, Katie Mills and Roz Howard from the University of Western Australia, contributed to sessions on the value of social media in a university setting. Two presentations -- one by Ozge Sevindik-Alkan, the other by Alyson Dalby, Amy Barker, Kate Byrne and Clare McKenzie -- explored the use of social media and groupware for mentoring and professional networking. Louise Prichard and Louise Tegart described how the State Library of NSW was connecting to exhibition visitors using the Curio mobile app, which involved a partnership with Art Processors, developers of the mobile guide for the Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart.  

Digital literacy programs are being tweaked. Sharon Bryan, Helen Hooper and Bronwyn Mathiesen focused on the use of games to create a suite of reusable learning objects at James Cook University Library. Two speakers -- Bronwen Forster (Cook University) and Christine Oughtred (Deakin University) – outlined ways in which library courses have been developed in collaboration with teachers and staff. Emily Rutherford, Dr Katharina Freund, Heather Jenks, Inger Mewburn examined the use of badges to provide verified credentials to students at the Australian National University Library.


Troy Brown urged more collaboration by galleries, libraries, archives and museums. The GLAM sector currently spends approximately $2.5 billion, around 80% of which is provided by government. The GLAM Innovation Study, undertaken by CSIRO with the Australian Centre for Broadband Innovation and Smart Services Co-operative Research Centre as part of its digital productivity flagship research, reports that their combined collections contain over 100 million objects, 25% of which is digitised. Among other recommendations, it proposed a national framework for collaboration, supported by a leadership forum, involving “some minimal, cross-sector governance arrangements beyond the existing professional and industry associations."[7]  

Rebecca Daly and Susan Jones gave an example of modest cross-sectoral collaboration in their presentation on a project involving the University of Wollongong Library, Illawarra Historical Society & Illawarra Museum to pull together local archival content for digitisation and online access, including then-and-now streetscape images, estate and subdivision plans, land title deeds, historical publications and photographs. A workshop presentation by Jane Cowell and Ian Wedlock on the State Library of Queensland’s The Next Horizon: Vision 2017, which aims to transform Queensland’s 340 public libraries into physical and digital hubs to capture the unique histories and contemporary stories in regional Queensland libraries, museums and historical societies.[8]


The conference left two impressions that have prompted further reflection. The first was that the attendance and the number of exhibitors had declined markedly since the Information Online heyday. The second was that the program felt more like an annual version of the ALIA Biennial Conference. Was this year’s conference really at the edge? And, at a time when most libraries are wired up, is the conference facing its use-by date?  

Library directions

Technologically-driven change has affected and continues to influence the development of industries and those who work in them. Australia’s collective know-how -- the knowledge and expertise of its people – is now valued at $16.7 trillion, with nearly $615 billion added to the total in 2014.[9]  On the other hand, Australia’s digital economy ranking is slowly receding rather than advancing, as governments help or hinder future directions.[10]

Commentators continue to depict the future of libraries in terms of an evolving revolution. CNI’s Clifford Lynch says the evolution is carried forward under the enormous strain of a very complex system. Many institutions are no longer economically sustainable or stable. Transitions of stewardship responsibility from one organisation to another will become increasingly commonplace.[11]  It will be necessary to develop strategies and infrastructure to deal with these demands effectively, affordably, and at the requisite scale.[12].  

Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC’s chief strategist and manager of research, also pinpoints the network as the main driver of the evolution. In The Network Reshapes the Library, a compilation of his blogs of the past 12 years, he reflects on the move by libraries into an evolving ecosystem of information services. Libraries need to structure their systems, data, and access protocols to facilitate networked access across regional collectives, countries and the world. A lot of habits, systems, and functions will necessarily change for this vision to take root. Strategic attention to these areas, he writes, is often emergent rather than deliberate and issues are not always pulled together in a single planning context.[13].  

In his OCLC report Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting, written with Constance Malpas and Brian Lavoie, he amplifies how the network is reconfiguring libraries within institutions and across the sector. As libraries become more engaged in research and learning workflows, they need to rebalance investment in “commodity” materials and increase operational efficiencies. An “inside-out orientation” will become more important as universities focus on distinctive institutional assets and libraries direct increased curatorial attention toward special collections, new scholarly products, research preprints, and learning resources. Ultimately, the degree to which these broad environmental changes will affect academic libraries will depend upon the availability of appropriate collaborative infrastructure above the institution. Building shared services at scale is necessary and a challenge.[14] 

Meanwhile libraries and their suppliers beaver away on systems and standards. Marshal Breeding, in his annual review of the library systems marketplace, writes about a relentless consolidation of systems in the last 12 months, with among issues ongoing interest in linked data and the development of BIBFRAME as a replacement for MARC.[15] Ted Fons, at the CNI December 2014 meeting, sketched out efforts by OCLC to move away from inventory-based discovery systems towards linked data entities and relationships in diverse information ecosystems.[16] Dean Krafft and Tom Cramer, in the same meeting, reported progress in a linked open data project of Harvard, Cornell and Stanford universities libraries, which aims to produce an ontology, architecture, and set of tools that will work within and across individual institutions in an extensible network.[17] And Jerome McDonough, in Falling Though the Cracks, expressed the hope that libraries, archives and museums will use linked data and other standards to capture intangible heritage information and overcome the inertia around cooperative collection development.[18] In March 2015, the National Information Standards Organization launched three new projects to develop new standards to better support exchange and interoperability of bibliographic data'[19].

Library associations and conferences

Since the first library association was launched at the Pennsylvania Historical Society conference in 1876, their number and nature have expanded globally around general and specialist interests. Their conferences are usually pitched as professional development and networking opportunities rather than as forums for advancing big ideas in concert.  

The first Information Online conference was presented in January 1986 under the management of ALIA’s Information Online Group.[20]. The reins have now been transferred to the ALIA head office and the number of delegates and exhibitors has declined in recent years. Melbourne interests in libraries and technology preceded those in Sydney. The independent Victorian Association for Library Automation (, established in 1978 and now rebadged as Libraries, Technology and the Future Inc, organised its first conference in 1981. The roll-up to the biennial Melbourne conferences matches the attendance at the biennial Sydney conference.   

The Australian Library and Information Association, in addition to organising the Information Online conference, also now hosts three other national conferences -- the ALIA Biennial Conference, the New Librarians Symposium, and a National Library and Information Technicians’ Symposium. 

Specialist conferences devoted to online information and technology abound here and overseas. Their papers, slides and videoed presentations are generally made available via conference websites or video channels.

Is this the best we can do?

The Information Online conferences have resounded with the catch-cries of computing, content, connectivity and customers since the Information Online conferences began. This one was no exception. Every conference needs an agent provocateur and the one who stepped up to the plate at Information Online was Siva Vaidhyanathan, who challenged libraries to do better in the next phase of the information revolution. Is it a question of advocating value or of marshalling forces? 

ALIA had used the conference to launch its new advocacy campaign FAIR (Freedom of Access to Information Resources) as a way of giving more prominence to lobbying needed on library funding, legal deposit, digitisation, evidence-based policy making, copyright law reform and other matters.[21]  

Liz McGettigan, in her presentation, urged delegates to find a new language for dealing with funders. Sue Hutley underscored the need to adopt IT infrastructure and performance standards, an issue now on the agenda of the Council of Australian University Librarians. Five years ago, Marie-Louise Ayres in a discussion paper to National and State Libraries Australia commented on the lack of standardisation of practice and performance across the libraries NSLA represents.[22] And we can go as far back as 2001, when John Houghton, in his report for CAUL, The Economics of Scholarly Communication, wrote “the library community does not have a particularly good handle on its own costs or standard approaches to data collection on holdings, expenditures, staffing. All too often judgements are made, rather than decisions, because of a lack of information.”  

Siva Vaidhyanathan had spoken about Google’s interest in the Internet of Things, which may affect the future of libraries but is currently at the outer reaches of their interest and control.[23] His call for a Human Knowledge Project has antecedents in plans by Paul Otlet and Henri-Marie La Fontaine to create a world index of literature in the 1890s. Knowledge management has lost its gloss in recent years because of the inherent difficulties of creating and maintaining trust in a cynical world of rapid change.   

The GLAM Innovation Study is the latest attempt to stimulate concerted local action by galleries, libraries, archives and museums. Drawing people, processes and technologies out of the GLAM sector silos has been a major challenge. The experience of the National Digitisation Information Infrastructure Preservation Program in the United States highlighted the difficulty of collaboration in diverse environments. The closure in 2010 of the Collections Council of Australia, on which the main GLAM sector bodies were represented, put the brakes on a momentum that had built up with the help of government money. Museums Australia, in consultation with ALIA, has organised a meeting of GLAM sector bodies in June to take stock of the situation.  

Funding from the three levels of government funding will undoubtedly be needed to draw mixed interests and capabilities into a more unified digital space. But it is worth remembering that ALIA and Museums Australia both owe their existence to the substantial support of the Carnegie Corporation in the 1930s. In 2007 the Northern Territory Library received an award of US$1 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for its work to improve the lives of Indigenous Australians. International forums such as APEC and the G20 may provide lessons on ways of conferring and resolving things that need to be done. The under-funded Trove initiative is a solid platform that calls for more imagination, specification and commitment to build the rest of the house.  

There is a case for letting things evolve. In 2004, the former Deputy Director of the National Library, Eric Wainwright, in noting the Australian library sector was without a national body through which libraries can pool resources to influence government policy, develop strategy and encourage cross-sectoral projects, wrote that “most of us have less belief both in grand visions and the likelihood of broad consensus.” He argued the need for summit-style gatherings had changed and the information and communication fields were so fast-moving that institutions were having themselves to react more quickly. It is less likely that national mechanisms built on consensus can respond within the timescales needed for decisions. [24]

But, as Clifford Lynch asserts, the era of letting a thousand flowers bloom may be over and a new phase of the information revolution may compel more effective concerted action.[25]

Unless you're optimistic there are reasons to be pessimistic. Maybe the intelligence that libraries are seeking to foster is overrated? The public intellectual Noam Chomsky, in a recent talk about the failure of humans to deal with nuclear and environmental threats, claimed that intelligence was a lethal mutation: lower forms of life such as bacteria and beetles will survive homo sapiens, whose use-by date has almost arrived.]26] The physicist Stephen Hawking has offered the view that the full development of artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.[27]

Will the robots have arrived by the next ALIA Information Online in February 2017?


[1] ALIA information Online Conference 2015 program and papers:

[2] Vaidhyanathan S, "The Human Knowledge Project" paper presentedat the Cultural Policy Centre, University of Chicago, 29 October 2013

[3] MDG Advertising. “Bucharest Subway Station Turned into Digital Library”, MDG Advertising and Marketing Blog (10 February 2013).

[4] Johnson L, Adams Becker S, Estrada V, and Freeman A, NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition. (The New Media Consortium, 2014)

[5] Whitelaw M, "Collection Space" (paper presented at Information Online Conference 2015, Sydney, 5 February 2015, with links to experiments mentioned above; Madrigal AC, “How Netflix Reverse Engineered Hollywood”, The Atlantic 2 January 2014

[6] University of New South Wales National Institute for Experimental Arts. Professor Sarah Kenderdine: Biography; University of New South Wales National Instittute of Experimental Arts. Laboratory for Innovation in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums (iGlam); and Meyer R, “The Museum of the Future Is Here”, The Atlantic (20 January 2015),

[7] Mansfield T, Winter C, Griffith C, Dockerty A, Brown T. Innovation Study: Challenges and Opportunities for Australia’s Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums, (Centre for Broadband Innovation, CSIRO and Smart Services Co-operative Research Centre, August 2014)

[8] State Library of Queensland, The New Horizon :Vision 2017 (2014)

[9] Wade M, “Australia's Collective Know-how at an All-time High”, Sydney Morning Herald (7 March 2015)

[10] Chakravorti B, Tunnard C, Chaturvedi RS, “Where the Digital Economy is Moving the Fastest”, Harvard Business Review (19 February 2015)

[11] Lynch C, "An Evolving Environment: Privacy, Security, Migration and Stewardship" (Paper presented at Coalition of Networked Information Membership Meeting, Washington DC, 8-9 December 2014  

[12] Lynch C, "Sharing and Preserving Scholarship: Challenges of Coherence and Scale". (Paper presented at the Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California Conference, 10 March 2014),

[13] Dempsey L, The Network Shapes the Library: Loran Dempsey on Libraries, Services and Networks, (American Library Association, 2014).

[14] Dempsey L, Maplas C, Lavoie B, "Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting" (2014) 14(3) portal: Libraries and the Academy 393

[15] Breeding M, "Library Technology Forecast for 2015 and Beyond" (2014) 34 Computers in Libraries 10 at 22ff. (

[16] Cole T, Sarol J, Fons T, and Arlitsch K, "Exposing Library Collections on the Web: Challenges and Lessons Learned", (Paper presented at Coalition for Networked Information Membership Meeting Fall, Washington DC, 8-9 December 2014),

[17] Krafft D and Cramer T, "The Linked Data For Libraries (LD4L) Project: A Progress Report", (Paper presented at Coalition of Networked Information Membership Meeting 8-9 December  2014)

[18] McDonough J, "Falling Though the Cracks: Digital Preservation and Institutional Failures", (Paper presented at Coalition of Networked Information Membership Meeting 8-9 December 2014)

[19] National Information Standards Organisation. Bibliographic Roadmap Development Project,

[20] Swan E, “Information Online 1985 +: a salute” (2012) 33 Incite 3

[21] Australian Library and Information Association, Fair Initiative

[22] Ayres ML, Faster Access to Archival Collection in NSLA Libraries: Project Report, (National and State Libraries Australia, 2010)

[23] Online Computer Library Center, “Libraries and the Internet of Things”, Nextspace (15 February 2015)

[24] Wainright E, “Glory Days? Reflections on the 1988 Australian Libraries Summit and its Aftermaths”,  2004 53 Australian Library Journal 1.

[25] Lynch C. "Sharing and Preserving Scholarship: Challenges of Coherence and Scale". (Paper presented at Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California Conference, March 2014)

[26] Chomsky N, The Emerging World Order: Its Roots, Our Legacy, (3 February 2015)

[27] Balkam S, “What Will Happen When the Internet of Things Becomes Artificially Intelligent?” The Guardian (21 February 2015)


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